Quantum computing – Wikipedia

Quantum computing - Wikipedia

The Bloch sphere is a representation of a qubit, the fundamental building block of quantum computers.

  • There is no searchable structure in the collection of possible answers,
  • The number of possible answers to check is the same as the number of inputs to the algorithm, and
  • There exists a boolean function which evaluates each input and determines whether it is the correct answer
  • Scalable physically to increase the number of qubits
  • Qubits that can be initialized to arbitrary values
  • Quantum gates that are faster than decoherence time
  • Universal gate set
  • Qubits that can be read easily
  • Quantum gate array (computation decomposed into a sequence of few-qubit quantum gates)
  • One-way quantum computer (computation decomposed into a sequence of one-qubit measurements applied to a highly entangled initial state or cluster state)
  • Adiabatic quantum computer, based on quantum annealing (computation decomposed into a slow continuous transformation of an initial Hamiltonian into a final Hamiltonian, whose ground states contain the solution)[47]
  • Topological quantum computer[48] (computation decomposed into the braiding of anyons in a 2D lattice)
  • Superconducting quantum computing[49][50] (qubit implemented by the state of small superconducting circuits (Josephson junctions)
  • Trapped ion quantum computer (qubit implemented by the internal state of trapped ions)
  • Neutral atoms in Optical lattices (qubit implemented by internal states of neutral atoms trapped in an optical lattice)[51][52]
  • Quantum dot computer, spin-based (e.g. the Loss-DiVincenzo quantum computer[53]) (qubit given by the spin states of trapped electrons)
  • Quantum dot computer, spatial-based (qubit given by electron position in double quantum dot)[54]
  • Quantum computing using engineered quantum wells, which could in principle enable the construction of quantum computers that operate at room temperature[55][56]
  • Coupled Quantum Wire (qubit implemented by a pair of Quantum Wires coupled by a Quantum Point Contact)[57][58][59]
  • Nuclear magnetic resonance quantum computer (NMRQC) implemented with the nuclear magnetic resonance of molecules in solution, where qubits are provided by nuclear spins within the dissolved molecule and probed with radio waves
  • Solid-state NMR Kane quantum computers (qubit realized by the nuclear spin state of phosphorus donors in silicon)
  • Electrons-on-helium quantum computers (qubit is the electron spin)
  • Cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED) (qubit provided by the internal state of trapped atoms coupled to high-finesse cavities)
  • Molecular magnet[60] (qubit given by spin states)
  • Fullerene-based ESR quantum computer (qubit based on the electronic spin of atoms or molecules encased in fullerenes)[61]
  • Nonlinear optical quantum computer (qubits realized by processing states of different modes of light through both linear and nonlinear elements)[62][63]
  • Linear optical quantum computer (qubits realized by processing states of different modes of light through linear elements e.g. mirrors, beam splitters and phase shifters)[64]
  • Diamond-based quantum computer[65][66][67] (qubit realized by the electronic or nuclear spin of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond)
  • Bose-Einstein condensate-based quantum computer[68]
  • Transistor-based quantum computer – string quantum computers with entrainment of positive holes using an electrostatic trap
  • Rare-earth-metal-ion-doped inorganic crystal based quantum computers[69][70] (qubit realized by the internal electronic state of dopants in optical fibers)
  • Metallic-like carbon nanospheres based quantum computers[71]
  • The suspected relationship of BQP to several classical complexity classes.[77]

  • Nielsen, Michael; Chuang, Isaac (2000). Quantum Computation and Quantum Information. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-63503-5. OCLC 174527496.
  • Mermin, N. David (2007). Quantum Computer Science: An Introduction. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-87658-2.
  • Akama, Seiki (2014). Elements of Quantum Computing: History, Theories and Engineering Applications. Springer International Publishing. ISBN 978-3-319-08284-4.
  • Benenti, Giuliano (2004). Principles of Quantum Computation and Information Volume 1. New Jersey: World Scientific. ISBN 978-981-238-830-8. OCLC 179950736.
  • Stolze, Joachim; Suter, Dieter (2004). Quantum Computing. Wiley-VCH. ISBN 978-3-527-40438-4.
  • Wichert, Andreas (2014). Principles of Quantum Artificial Intelligence. World Scientific Publishing Co. ISBN 978-981-4566-74-2.
  • Hiroshi, Imai; Masahito, Hayashi (2006). Quantum Computation and Information. Berlin: Springer. ISBN 978-3-540-33132-2.
  • Jaeger, Gregg (2006). Quantum Information: An Overview. Berlin: Springer. ISBN 978-0-387-35725-6. OCLC 255569451.
  • Abbot, Derek; Doering, Charles R.; Caves, Carlton M.; Lidar, Daniel M.; Brandt, Howard E.; Hamilton, Alexander R.; Ferry, David K.; Gea-Banacloche, Julio; Bezrukov, Sergey M.; Kish, Laszlo B. (2003). “Dreams versus Reality: Plenary Debate Session on Quantum Computing”. Quantum Information Processing. 2 (6): 449–472. arXiv:quant-ph/0310130. doi:10.1023/B:QINP.0000042203.24782.9a. hdl:2027.42/45526. S2CID 34885835.
  • DiVincenzo, David P. (2000). “The Physical Implementation of Quantum Computation”. Fortschritte der Physik. 48 (9–11): 771–783. arXiv:quant-ph/0002077. Bibcode:2000ForPh..48..771D. doi:10.1002/1521-3978(200009)48:9/11<771::AID-PROP771>3.0.CO;2-E.
  • Berthiaume, Andre (1997). “Quantum Computation”.
  • DiVincenzo, David P. (1995). “Quantum Computation”. Science. 270 (5234): 255–261. Bibcode:1995Sci…270..255D. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.242.2165. doi:10.1126/science.270.5234.255. S2CID 220110562. Table 1 lists switching and dephasing times for various systems.
  • Feynman, Richard (1982). “Simulating physics with computers”. International Journal of Theoretical Physics. 21 (6–7): 467–488. Bibcode:1982IJTP…21..467F. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.45.9310. doi:10.1007/BF02650179. S2CID 124545445.
  • Mitchell, Ian (1998). “Computing Power into the 21st Century: Moore’s Law and Beyond”.
  • Simon, Daniel R. (1994). “On the Power of Quantum Computation”. Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers Computer Society Press.
  • Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: “Quantum Computing” by Amit Hagar and Michael E. Cuffaro.
  • “Quantum computation, theory of”, Encyclopedia of Mathematics, EMS Press, 2001 [1994]
  • Quantum computing for the very curious by Andy Matuschak and Michael Nielsen
  • Quantum computing for the determined – 22 video lectures by Michael Nielsen
  • Video Lectures by David Deutsch
  • Lectures at the Institut Henri Poincaré (slides and videos)
  • Online lecture on An Introduction to Quantum Computing, Edward Gerjuoy (2008)
  • Lomonaco, Sam. Four Lectures on Quantum Computing given at Oxford University in July 2006
  • Source: en.wikipedia.org

    Author: Authority control


    Christianity in Saudi Arabia - Wikipedia

    Christianity in Saudi Arabia – Wikipedia

    Africa

  • Algeria
  • Angola
  • Benin
  • Botswana
  • Burkina Faso
  • Burundi
  • Cameroon
  • Cape Verde
  • Central African Republic
  • Chad
  • Comoros
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • Republic of the Congo
  • Djibouti
  • Egypt
  • Equatorial Guinea
  • Eritrea
  • Eswatini
  • Ethiopia
  • Gabon
  • Gambia
  • Ghana
  • Guinea
  • Guinea-Bissau
  • Ivory Coast
  • Kenya
  • Lesotho
  • Liberia
  • Libya
  • Madagascar
  • Malawi
  • Mali
  • Mauritania
  • Mauritius
  • Morocco
  • Mozambique
  • Namibia
  • Niger
  • Nigeria
  • Rwanda
  • São Tomé and Príncipe
  • Senegal
  • Seychelles
  • Sierra Leone
  • Somalia
  • South Africa
  • South Sudan
  • Sudan
  • Tanzania
  • Togo
  • Tunisia
  • Uganda
  • Zambia
  • Zimbabwe
  • Asia

  • Afghanistan
  • Bangladesh
  • Bhutan
  • Brunei
  • Cambodia
  • China
  • East Timor
  • Hong Kong
  • India
  • Indonesia
  • Japan
  • Kazakhstan
  • Korea
  • Kyrgyzstan
  • Laos
  • Macau
  • Malaysia
  • Maldives
  • Mongolia
  • Myanmar
  • Nepal
  • North Korea
  • Pakistan
  • Philippines
  • Russia
  • Singapore
  • South Korea
  • Sri Lanka
  • Taiwan
  • Tajikistan
  • Thailand
  • Turkmenistan
  • Uzbekistan
  • Vietnam
      • Middle East
    • Bahrain
    • Cyprus
    • Iran
    • Iraq
    • Israel
    • Jordan
    • Kuwait
    • Lebanon
    • Oman
    • Palestine
    • Qatar
    • Saudi Arabia
    • Syria
    • Turkey
    • United Arab Emirates
    • Yemen
    • Europe

    • Albania
    • Andorra
    • Armenia
    • Austria
    • Azerbaijan
    • Belarus
    • Belgium
    • Bosnia and Herzegovina
    • Bulgaria
    • Croatia
    • Czechia
    • Denmark
    • Estonia
    • Finland
    • France
    • Georgia
    • Germany
    • Greece
    • Hungary
    • Iceland
    • Ireland
    • Italy
    • Jersey
    • Kosovo
    • Latvia
    • Liechtenstein
    • Lithuania
    • Luxembourg
    • Malta
    • Moldova
    • Monaco
    • Montenegro
    • Netherlands
    • North Macedonia
    • Norway
    • Poland
    • Portugal
    • Romania
    • Russia
    • San Marino
    • Serbia
    • Slovakia
    • Slovenia
    • Spain
    • Sweden
    • Switzerland
    • Turkey
    • Ukraine
    • England
    • Northern Ireland
    • Scotland
    • Wales
    • North America

    • Antigua and Barbuda
    • Bahamas
    • Barbados
    • Belize
    • Canada
    • Costa Rica
    • Cuba
    • Dominica
    • Dominican Republic
    • El Salvador
    • Grenada
    • Guatemala
    • Haiti
    • Honduras
    • Jamaica
    • Mexico
    • Nicaragua
    • Panama
    • Saint Kitts and Nevis
    • Saint Lucia
    • Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
    • Trinidad and Tobago
    • United States
    • Oceania

    • Australia
    • Fiji
    • Kiribati
    • Marshall Islands
    • Micronesia
    • Nauru
    • New Zealand
    • Palau
    • Papua New Guinea
    • Samoa
    • Solomon Islands
    • Tonga
    • Tuvalu
    • Vanuatu
    • South America

    • Argentina
    • Bolivia
    • Brazil
    • Chile
    • Colombia
    • Ecuador
    • Guyana
    • Paraguay
    • Peru
    • Suriname
    • Uruguay
    • Venezuela
      • v
      • t
      • e

      Overview

    • Historical persecution of Christians
    • Vatican and Eastern Europe 1846–1958
    • Catholic Church persecutions 1939–1958
    • Eradication of the Church under Stalinism
    • Eastern Catholic persecutions
    • Persecution of Christians in the modern era
    • Roman Empire

    • Persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire
    • Diocletianic Persecution
    • Neo-Persian Empire

      • Sasanian conquest of Jerusalem

      Byzantine Empire

    • East–West Schism
    • Massacre of the Latins
    • Muslim world

    • Muslim conquests
    • Conversion of non-Islamic places of worship into mosques
    • Armenian Genocide
    • Assyrian genocide
    • Greek genocide
    • Kosheh massacres
    • Saudi Arabia

      • Christianity in Saudi Arabia

      Sudan

      • Christianity in Sudan

      Egypt

      • Maspero demonstrations

      Islamic terrorism

      • Persecution of Christians by ISIL

      Japan

      • Martyrs of Japan

      European wars of religion

      • Thirty Years’ War

      France

    • Dechristianization of France during the French Revolution
    • War in the Vendée
    • Mexico

    • Cristero War
    • Iniquis afflictisque
    • Acerba animi
    • Saints
    • José Sánchez del Río
    • Persecution of Christians in Mexico
    • Miguel Pro
    • Spain

    • Umayyad conquest of Hispania
    • Martyrs of the Spanish Civil War
    • Red Terror · Dilectissima Nobis
    • Martyrs of Turon
    • Martyrs of Daimiel
    • Bartolomé Blanco
    • Innocencio of Mary Immaculate
    • José María of Manila
    • 233 Spanish Martyrs
    • 498 Spanish Martyrs
    • 522 Spanish Martyrs
    • Netherlands

      Titus Brandsma

      Germany

    • Nazi persecution of the Catholic Church in Germany
    • Mit brennender Sorge
    • Alfred Delp
    • Alois Grimm
    • Rupert Mayer
    • Bernhard Lichtenberg
    • Max Josef Metzger
    • Karl Leisner
    • Maximilian Kolbe
    • Erich Klausener
    • China

    • Martyr Saints of China
    • Auguste Chapdelaine
    • Persecution of Christians in China
    • Ad Sinarum gentem
    • Cupimus Imprimis
    • Ad Apostolorum principis
    • Ignatius Kung Pin-Mei
    • Beda Chang
    • Dominic Tang
    • Vietnam

    • Vietnamese Martyrs
    • Nguyễn Văn Thuận
    • Ngô Đình Diệm
      (Buddhist crisis, Huế Phật Đản shootings, Huế chemical attacks, Double Seven Day scuffle, Xá Lợi Pagoda raids, 1963 South Vietnamese coup, arrest and assassination of Ngô Đình Diệm)
    • Poland

    • Polish anti-religious campaign 1945–1990
    • Stefan Wyszyński
    • 108 Blessed Polish Martyrs
    • Policies
    • Poloniae Annalibus
    • Gloriosam Reginam
    • Invicti athletae
    • Jerzy Popiełuszko
    • Eastern Europe

    • József Mindszenty
    • Eugene Bossilkov
    • Severian Baranyk
    • Josef Beran
    • Drina Martyrs
    • Genocide of Serbs in the Independent State of Croatia
    • Zynoviy Kovalyk
    • Aloysius Stepinac
    • Meminisse iuvat
    • Anni sacri
    • Sára Salkaházi
    • Walter Ciszek
    • Pietro Leoni
    • Theodore Romzha
    • India

    • Violence against Christians in India
    • 2008 attacks on Christians in southern Karnataka
    • Nicaragua

      • Miguel Obando y Bravo

      El Salvador

    • Four U.S. missionaries
    • Ignacio Ellacuría
    • Rutilio Grande
    • Ignacio Martín-Baró
    • Segundo Montes
    • Óscar Romero
    • 1989 murders of Jesuits
    • Nigeria

      Religious violence in Nigeria

      Guatemala

      • Stanley Rother

      United Kingdom

    • Anti-Catholicism in the United Kingdom
    • List of Catholic martyrs of the English Reformation
    • Forty Martyrs of England and Wales
    • Irish Catholic Martyrs
    • Dissolution of the Monasteries
    • Penal Laws
    • Cromwellian conquest of Ireland
    • Philippines

    • Lorenzo Ruiz
    • Pedro Calungsod
    • Gomburza
    • North Korea

      • Catholic Church in North Korea
      • v
      • t
      • e
    • Human rights in Saudi Arabia
    • Freedom of religion in Saudi Arabia
    • Roman Catholicism in Saudi Arabia
    • Eastern Orthodox Christianity in Saudi Arabia
    • Protestantism in Saudi Arabia
    • Capital punishment in Saudi Arabia
    • Source: en.wikipedia.org


      Quantum computing - Wikipedia


    Rating: 0
    xc false
    Slider: 0

    Leave a Reply

    Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *