Planet Mozilla

Planet Mozilla

Seven years ago, on April 29th 2013, I walked into the old Castro Street Mozilla headquarters in Mountain View for my week of onboarding and orientation. Jubilant and full of imposter syndrom, that day marked the start of a whole new era in my professional career.

I’m not going to spend an entire post reminiscing about the good ol’ days (though those days were good indeed). Instead, I thought it might be useful to share a few things that I’ve learned over the last seven years, as I went from senior engineer to senior manager.

Je n’ai fait celle-ci plus longue que parce que je n’ai pas eu le loisir de la faire plus courte.

– Blaise Pascal

Pascal’s famous quote – If I had more time, I would have written a shorter letter – is strong advice. One of the best way to disrupt any discussion or debate is indeed to be overly verbose, to extend your commentary into infinity, and to bore people to death.

Here’s the thing: nobody cares about the history of the universe. Be brief. If someone asks for someone specific, give them that information, and perhaps mention that there’s more to be said about it. They’ll let you know if they are interested in hearing the backstory.

People like to hear themselves talk. I certainly do. But over time I realized that, by being brief, I get a lot more attention from people, so they ask more questions, reach out more often, because they know I won’t drag them into a lengthy debate.

But don’t fall into the extreme opposite. Being overly brief can be detrimental to a conversation, or make you appear like you don’t care to participate. The is a right balance to be found between too short and too long, depending on the context and your audience.

Or more accurately, tell a story that touches your audience directly. If you’re working on a security review of a nodejs application hosted in heroku, tell them stories of other nodejs applications hosted in heroku, ideally from a nearby team or organization. Don’t go lecture them on the need for network security monitoring in datacenters, they simply won’t care, as it doesn’t touch them.

If you want to get people interested in what you’re doing, first you need to take interest into what they are doing, then you need to tell them a good story they will care about. Finding out what that is will increase your chances of success.

That story will also change depending on your audience. Engineers will care about one thing, their managers something else, and the executives another thing entirely. Emphasize the parts of your project or idea that your audience will be most interested in to catch their attention, without losing the nature of your work.

This isn’t rocket science. In fact, it’s old school business playbook. Dale Carnegie’s 1936 “

I started out at Mozilla as a senior security engineer focused entirely on operations and infrastructure. I spent my days doing security reviews, making guides and writing code. 100% technical work. When I got promoted to staff, then to manager, then to senior manager, the proportion of technical work gradually reduced to make room for managerial work.

Managing is important. With 9-or-so people on the team, being able to accurately focus attention on the right set of problems is critical to the security of the perimeter. In fact, there’s an entire school of thought that advocates that managers should be entirely focused on management tasks, and stay away from technical work.

For better or worse, I don’t buy into that. I believe, for myself and for my team, that I’m a better team manager and security strategist when I have a deep technical understanding of the issues at hand.

That doesn’t mean non-technical managers are bad. In fact, I think there are many situations where a non-technical manager is a better choice than a technical one. But for the field of operations security, at Mozilla, managing the people I manage, I think being technical is a strength.

How do you remain technical while being a manager? There are certainly areas in which I don’t have a deep technical understanding and struggle to acquire one. But in general, I find that experimenting outside core projects, and picking up tasks outside the critical path, helps remain current and relevant.

For example, if the organization decide to switch to writing web applications in Rust with Actix, I’ll write one myself. I won’t get to the level of expertise I have in other areas, but I’ll know enough to be relevant during security reviews and threat modeling sessions. And I continue to acquire knowledge in my areas of specialty: cloud infrastructure, cryptographic services, etc.

I don’t expect to leave the management track any time soon. In fact, I expect to continue to grow in it. But I find it important that I could go back to a senior staff engineer role if I wanted to. Perhaps it is hubris, time will tell.

A year ago, I spent a night seated on a small table outside the reception of the Wahweap campground in Lake Powell, Arizona, as I was helping my team re-issue an intermediate certificate used to sign Firefox add-ons. It was freezing outside. I caught a cold, and a strong lesson, as dozens of my peers where untangling a mess I had helped create.

We called this incident “Armagaddon” internally, and it all started because we made a few assumptions we never took time to verify. We assumed that certificate expiration checking was disabled when verifying add-ons signatures, when in fact it was only disabled for end-entities. When the intermediate expired, everything blew up.

I learned that lesson. I also learned to identify and question every assumptions that we, engineers, make. The more complex a system becomes – and the Firefox ecosystem certainly is a complex one – the more assumptions people make. Learning to identify and consistently call out those assumption, forcing myself and others to verify them, and basing decisions on hard data and tests is critically important.

There is a place and a time where assumptions can be made and risks be taken, but not always, and certainly not on mission critical components. As an industry, we’ve bought into the “go fast and break things” mindset that is plain wrong for a lot of environments. Learning to slow down and taking the time to verify assumptions is, perhaps, the biggest cultural change we need.

You think differently about engineering when you have to maintain compatibility with devices and software that haven’t been updated in one, and sometime two, decades. Firefox falls into that category. Every time we try to change something that’s been around a while, we run into backward compatibility issues.

Up until recently, we maintained a separate set of HTTPS endpoints that supported SSL3 and SHA-1 certificates, issued by decomissioned roots, to allow XP SP2 users to download Firefox installers. And when I say recently, I mean one or two years ago. Long after Microsoft had stopped supporting those users.

I have tons of examples of having to maintain weird configurations and infrastructure for deprecated users no one wants to think about. Yet, they exists, and often represent a sizeable portion of our users that cannot simply be ignored.

As a system designer, learning to account for backward compatibility is a learning curve. It’s certainly much easier to greenfield a process while ignoring its history than to design a monster that needs to adopt modern techniques while serving old clients.

Some folks are better at this than others, and this is where you really feel the importance of experience and the value of tenured employees. Those people who jump ship every 18 months? They can’t tell you a thing about backward compatibility. But that engineer who’s been maintaining a critical system for the past 5 or 10 years absolutely can. Seek them, ask for the history of things, it’s always interesting to hear!

Nobody ever got fired for building a site in Python with Django and Postgresql. Or perhaps you’d like to keep using PHP? Maybe even Perl? The cool kids at the local hackathon will make fun of you for not using the latest javascript framework or Rust nightly, but your security team will probably love you for it.

The thing is, in 99% of cases, you’ll be an order of magnitude more productive and secure with boring tech. There are very few cases where the bleeding edge will actually give you an edge.

For example, I’m a big fan of Rust. And not because not being a big fan of Rust at Mozilla is a severe faux-pas. But because I think the language team is doing a great job of distilling programming best practices into a reasonable set of engineering principles. Yet, I absolutely do not recommend anyone to write backend services in Rust, unless they are ready to deal with a lot of pain. Things like web frameworks, ORMs, cloud SDKs, migration frameworks, unit testing, and so on all exist in Rust, but are nowhere as mature or tested as their Python equivalents.

My favorite stack to build a quick prototype of a web service is Python, Flask, Postgresql and Heroku. That’s it. All stuff that’s been around for over a decade and that no one considers new or cool.

Bugzilla is written in Perl. Phabricator or Pocket are PHP. ZAP is Java. etc. There are tons of examples of software that is widely successful by using boring tech, because their developers are so much more productive on those stacks than they would be on anything bleeding edge.

And from a security perspective, those boring techs have acquired a level of maturity that can only be attained by walking the walk. Sure, programming languages can and do prevent entire classes of vulnerabilities, but not all of them, and using Rust won’t stop SQL injections or SSRF.

So when should you not use boring tech? Mostly when you have time and money. If you’re flush on cash and you unique problems, taking six months or a year to ramp up a new tech is worthwhile. The ideal time to do it is when you’re rewriting a well-established service, and have a solid test suite to verify the rewrite is equivalent to the original. That’s what the Durable Sync team did at Mozilla, when they rewrote the Firefox Sync backend from Python/Mysql to Rust/Spanner.

My first two years at Mozilla were focused on an endpoint security project called MIG, for Mozilla Investigator. It was an exciting greenfield project and I got to use all the cool stuff: Go, MongoDB (yurk), RabbitMQ (meh), etc. I wrote tons and tons of code, shipped a fully functional architecture, got a logo from a designer friend, gave a dozen conference talks, even started a small open source community around it.

And then I switched gears.

In the space of maybe 6 months, I completely stopped working on MIG to focus on cloud services security. At first, it was hard to let go of a project I had invested so much into. Then, gradually, it faded, until eventually the project died off and got archived. My code was effectively deleted. Two years of work out the window. This isn’t something you’re trained to deal with. And in fact, most engineers, like I was, are overly attached to their code, to the point of aggressively fighting any change they disagree with.

If this is you, stop, right now, you’re not doing anyone any favors.

Your code will be deleted. Your projects will be cancelled. People are going to take over your work and transform it entirely, and you won’t even have a say in it. This is OK. That’s the way we move forward and progress. Learning to cope with that feeling early on will help you later in your career.

Nowadays, when someone is about to touch code I have previously written, I explicitely welcome them to rip out anything they think is worth removing. I give them a clear signal that I’m not attached to my code. I’d much rather see the project thrive than keep around old lines of code. I encourage you to do the same.

Security folks generally don’t need to be told to be passionate. In fact, they are often told the opposite, that they should tone it down a notch, that they are making too many waves. I disagree with this. I think it’s good and useful to an organization to have a passionate security team that truly cares about doing good work. If we’re not passionate about security, who else is going to be? That’s literally what we’re paid to do.

When a team comes ask for a security review about a new project, they expect to receive the full-on adversarial doomsday threat model experience from us. They want to talk to someone who’s passionate about breaking and hardening services to the extreme. So this is what we do in our risks assessments meetings. We don’t tone it down or play it safe, we push things to the extreme, we’re unreasonable and it’s fun as hell!

But when folks respectfully disagree with my recommendation to encrypt all databases with HSM-backed AES keys split with a Shamir threshold of 4 and store each fragment in underground bunkers around the world to prevent the NSA from compromising several of our employees to access the data, I remain respectful of their opinion. We have a productive and polite debate that leads to a reasonable middle-ground which sufficiently addresses the risks, and can be implemented within timeline and budget.

Both passion and respect are important quality of a successful engineer (or a person, really). I like to end a day knowing that I’ve done the right thing and that, even if everything didn’t go my way, I have made a good case and I’m satisfied with the outcome.

And so this is seven years at Mozilla. A lot more could be said about the work accomplished or the lessons learned, but then this would turn into a book, and I swore to myself I wouldn’t write another one of those just yet.

Working at Mozilla is a heck of a job, even in those trying times. The team is fantastic, the work is fascinating, and, as they said during my first week of onboarding back in the old Castro street office, we get to work for Mankind, not for The Man. That’s gotta be worth something!


Author Cynthia Kane: How To Develop Mindfulness And Serenity During Stressful Or Uncertain Times

Author Cynthia Kane: How To Develop Mindfulness And Serenity During Stressful Or Uncertain Times

Thank you so much for doing this with us! Our readers would love to “get to know you” a bit better. Can you share with us the backstory about what brought you to your specific career path?

I used to be a horrible communicator: closing off instead of sharing how I truly felt, reacting rather than responding to the words of others, and being passive-aggressive instead of assertive and clear. I would judge others and compare my insides to their outsides, which always resulted in a tirade of negative self-talk. What changed was my first love tragically passed away, and with his passing the world looked different. What I saw was that life was too beautiful to be upset all the time — constantly comparing, competing, thinking this is right and that is wrong. Life was too unpredictable to disrespect others and myself with my interactions. Life was to be enjoyed, not to suffer through. I craved to feel present, to enjoy my time here.

I wished nothing more at that time than for someone to come in and take all the pain away. To take my suffering and replace it. I wasn’t saying it had to be with something spectacular, but with a sensation of normalcy or at least an allowance of life being as life is. I read books, took courses, and signed up for workshops all on this quest to feel better. And no matter the class, teacher, mentor, over and over again I found that the root of my unhappiness and insecurity came from how I communicated. How I talked with others and myself dictated so much of my feeling state that to really enjoy each moment, to be here now, I had to teach myself a new way of interacting.

During this search to feel better in the world, I was introduced to the Elements of Right Speech in Buddhism and meditation. It was these two things that changed my life and when my career was really born. I started a lifestyle experiment to figure out how to speak in a kind, honest, and helpful way, which is what became the Kane Intentional Communication Method and what I’ve now taught to over 40,000 people. The formal practice of this method is meditation — as how we are in meditation is how we are within our conversations.

Can you share the most interesting story that happened to you since you started your career?

To me there’s not one interesting story that’s happened to me since I started my career. Maybe it’s because since I started my career everything has become that much more interesting. Once I got in to meditation and mindfulness and really changing the way I communicated, I finally learned how to be present and enjoy my days and relationships. Henry Miller said, “The moment one gives close attention to anything, even a blade of grass, it becomes a mysterious, awesome, indescribably magnificent world in itself”. So to me, each day is the most interesting story in itself.

What advice would you give to other leaders about how to create a fantastic work culture?

Come to every interaction with the intention to listen. To see each person in your organization, no matter how large, as someone you value and appreciate. By doing this, you then understand what people in your community need to thrive and feel inspired and motivated. Giving them the space they need to be able to think, create, smile, laugh, feel useful and helpful.

Is there a particular book that made a significant impact on you? Can you share a story or explain why it resonated with you so much?

There are many books that have truly impacted the way I see myself and the world. The one though that stands out among the rest is Nathanial Branden’s A Woman’s Self-Esteem. A lot of people will question a book written by a man about women’s self esteem, but the concepts within the book identified a lot of what I was struggling with after my first love’s death. The subject matter is very big and complex but Branden’s book is short, simple, and practical, making it very easy to understand. I use a lot of his finish the stems of sentence exercises with my students when we’re working on having difficult conversations.

Ok, thank you for all that. Now let’s move to the main focus of our interview. From your experience or research, how would you define and describe the state of being mindful?

The state of being mindful is awareness or wakefulness. It is paying attention to what you’re doing at the moment you’re doing it with non-judgmental, friendly attention. It’s becoming curious about the moment you’re in, observing it, engaging with it — all without evaluating it. It’s noticing where your attention is, what sensations that’s producing in the body or the mind, and knowing that it’s either helpful or unhelpful (all with a sense of it being as it is — not good or bad — simply as is). If it’s unhelpful, then choosing to move your attention to something that feels more yum than yuck.

So mindfulness is

  • Feeling upset and letting yourself feel that way — not beating yourself up for it and telling yourself you need to get over it, or what’s the big deal.
  • Eating too much and noticing the sensations in your stomach and not judging yourself for overeating.
  • Being stuck in quarantine and noting it without judging whether it’s good or bad. It simply is.

This might be intuitive to you, but it will be instructive to spell this out. Can you share with our readers a few of the physical, mental, and emotional benefits of becoming mindful?

Physical Benefits

  • Regulates blood pressure
  • Lowers heart rate
  • Lowers cholesterol
  • Increases fertility
  • Improves circulation
  • Reduces insomnia
  • Decreases chronic pain
  • Helps your memory

Mental benefits

  • Alleviates depression
  • Increases contentment
  • Boosts self-confidence / self-esteem
  • Less reactionary
  • Improves decision-making skills
  • Enhances concentration
  • Reduces anxiety and compulsive behavior

Emotional benefits

  • Increases feeling of connectedness with life
  • Increases feeling of safety
  • Increases intuition

Ok. Here is the main question of our discussion. The past 5 years have been filled with upheaval and political uncertainty. Many people have become anxious from the dramatic jolts of the news cycle. The fears related to the coronavirus pandemic have only heightened a sense of uncertainty, anxiety, fear, and loneliness. From your experience or research what are five steps that each of us can take to develop mindfulness and serenity during such uncertain times? Can you please share a story or example for each.

  • Listen to yourself: Starting to pay attention to how you’re talking to yourself is important. You want to notice if you’re talking to yourself in a way that promotes feelings of fear and anxiety, overwhelms. If your thoughts make you feel discomfort in any way or less than in any way. When you notice your language is unhelpful, moving you away from the feeling you want to feel, practice seeing it, saying to yourself, there I am speaking to myself in a way that’s leading me to feel more stress and fear — making something mean more than it does, and then come back to the present moment.
  • Focus on What’s True: Once back in the present moment then you want to focus on what’s true. Asking yourself, “what do I know to be true right now.” You want to focus on what you do know, the facts. Any “what if” phrases or assumptions or I think means you’re using your imagination and using it in an unskillful way. Drop the story and focus on what’s true.
  • Practice Gratitude: Then to move into seeing the whole landscape, not just the bad, start to put your attention on that which you’re grateful for. Practicing gratitude promotes a sense of well-being, bringing you out of a feeling of scarcity and fear.
  • Meditation: Sitting for 5–10 minutes in meditation will move you out of the sympathetic nervous system, where cortisol is pumping through your body and you’re in the flight, fight or freeze response to the parasympathetic nervous system, which is the rest and digest. It will help you to focus on one thing at a time, become more responsive instead of reactive, and be in the present moment. Even if you only do five long slow deep breaths in the morning, you’re setting yourself up for a more clam and relaxed day.
  • Acceptance / Allow: By allowing things to be as they are, we no longer fight with reality. The saying I love is don’t push the river. Seeing, noticing, allowing, and accepting where you right now make it easier to be in the situation you’re in. The more you fight against being in quarantine or social distancing the more stress, fear, and anxiety you’ll create for yourself. It’s easier to accept it and see how you can make it easier for yourself rather than harder.
  • Attention on Present Moment: If you’re caught up thinking about the future then you will experience feelings of anxiety and overwhelm, because you’re focusing on that which you can’t control. Again, using your imagination in a way that’s unskillful. And if you’re longing for the way things were before, you’ll fall into depression. Putting your attention on the moment that you’re in is the only way to love, create, laugh, or be grateful. When you notice you’re caught up in the future or the past, acknowledge it, and refocus back to your present moment. What are my hands doing? What are my feet doing? What is my body doing?
  • From your experience or research what are five steps that each of us can take to effectively offer support to those around us who are feeling anxious? Can you explain?

  • Allow: It’s our want to care for and fix others; however, the best thing we can do right now allows people to feel and experience whatever they’re going through. It’s not our responsibility to solve or give advice; it’s our responsibility to hold space for them. To give them permission to feel as they do — not to judge or evaluate their emotion — not to talk them out of it — not to provoke it — not to dwell in it with them — but to see them with loving eyes.
  • Match: While we see them with loving eyes, we want to match their emotion without getting absorbed in it or taking it on as our own. So we acknowledge their emotion so they feel seen and heard.
  • Ask: Instead of jumping in and giving advice, ask if they’re open to hearing what’s been helping you or what you’ve heard other people are doing to feel less stress and overwhelm right now. If they are open to it, then share. If they aren’t open, then respect that and refrain from sharing any resources, etc.
  • Meditate: Doing Metta / Loving Kindness meditation promotes healing to others as you’re extending love to those you care for, those who are neutral to you, and to all those who are suffering.
  • Refocus to facts: While in conversation, if you notice the other person starting to get stuck in assumptions, unhelpful thoughts, what if’s, what they don’t know to be true, see if you can come back to what you do know to be true. Focusing on what can be done and what choices we do have can be helpful.
  • What are the best resources you would suggest for someone to learn how to be more mindful and serene in their everyday life?

    I would download the Insight Timer App. It’s a free meditation app and there are also classes dedicated to mindfulness and meditation.

    Can you please give us your favorite “Life Lesson Quote”? Do you have a story about how that was relevant in your life?

    “You can either be a prisoner of your past or a pioneer of your future.” — Deepak Chopra

    I come back to the above quote again and again as it reminds me that I have a choice in how I want to interact and live in the world. In each moment I have an opportunity to either move more in the direction of feeling ease and peaceful and calm, of expressing myself to help myself and others suffer less, or of getting stuck in unhelpful thoughts and resorting to my old patterns of interacting that promote more discomfort and disease. To experience the world differently, we have to do something differently than we’ve done before.

    You are a person of great influence. If you could start a movement that would bring the most amount of good to the most amount of people, what would that be? You never know what your idea can trigger. 🙂

    Bringing the practice of Intentional Communication and the Kane Intentional Communication Method into schools and business and government. Learning how to communicate in a kind, honest, and helpful way would be part of school curriculum and business and government trainings. Our words are our power and our responsibility and they can be used to promote less suffering for ourselves and others — the earlier we learn this the easier our interactions become.

    What is the best way our readers can follow you online?

    My website or on Instagram at cykane1 and on Facebook at


    Author: Beau Henderson

    polyalphabetic cipher geeks for geeks

    polyalphabetic cipher geeks for geeks


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