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- “Silendo Libertatem Servo”
- (By being silent, I protect liberty)
- Western Union
- Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (NATO)
The situation in each Scandinavian country was different. Norway and Denmark were NATO allies, Sweden held to the neutrality that had taken her through two world wars, and Finland were required to defer in its foreign policy to the Soviet power directly on its borders. Thus, in one set of these countries the governments themselves would build their own stay-behind nets, counting on activating them from exile to carry on the struggle. These nets had to be co-ordinated with NATO’s plans, their radios had to be hooked to a future exile location, and the specialised equipment had to be secured from CIA and secretly cached in snowy hideouts for later use. In the other set of countries, CIA would have to do the job alone or with, at best, “unofficial” local help, since the politics of those governments barred them from collaborating with NATO, and any exposure would arouse immediate protest from the local Communist press, Soviet diplomats and loyal Scandinavians who hoped that neutrality or nonalignment would allow them to slip through a World War III unharmed.
An analogue of Operation Gladio was described in the 1949 fiction novel An Affair of State by Pat Frank. In Frank’s version, U.S. Department of State officers recruit a stay-behind network in Hungary to fight an insurgency against the Soviet Union after the Soviet Union launches an attack on and captures Western Europe.
In the 2012 Archer episode “Lo Scandalo”, the character Malory Archer mentions having been involved in Operation Gladio when younger. It is described by Lana Kane as “a crypto-fascist CIA shitshow, starring Allen Dulles and a bunch of former Nazis.”
John Douglas-Gray’s 2011 thriller The Novak Legacy ISBN 978-0-7552-1321-4
Umberto Eco’s 2015 novel Numero Zero, ISBN 978-1-910-70108-9
The Fox on IMDb, a 2017 English drama with Gladio as a main plot point, produced in the Netherlands by Alex ter Beek and Klaas van Eikeren.
Chris Ryan’s 2001 novel The Watchman. It gives an outline of Gladio together with the discovery of a hidden arms and equipment cache dating back to 1940 and subsequently assigned to Gladio.
Gladio on IMDb. Three-part BBC TV documentary, 1992. Directed by Allan Francovich.
NATO’s Secret Armies on IMDb. Documentary, 2010. Directed by Andreas Pichler.
Gladio – Geheimarmeen in Europa on IMDb. German documentary, 2011. Directed by Frank Gutermuth and Wolfgang Schoen.
Romanzo Criminale on IMDb. Drama, 2005. Concerning the “strategy of tension” and the Banda della Magliana. Directed by Michele Placido.
Valley of the Wolves: Gladio on IMDb. Turkish drama, 2009
Angelo Paratico The Karma Killers IUniverse, New York, 2009. ISBN 978-1440142635
Alpo K. Marttinen
CIA activities in Italy
False flag operation
Italian Communist Party (PCI) (1921–1991)
Daniele Ganser (2005), NATO’s Secret Armies: Operation GLADIO and Terrorism in Western Europe. ISBN 0-714-68500-3
William Egan Colby and Peter Forbath (1978), Honorable Men: My Life in the CIA. ISBN 0-671-22875-7
Sibel Edmonds (2014), The Lone Gladio. ISBN 0-692-21329-5
Paul L. Williams (2015), Operation Gladio: The Unholy Alliance between the Vatican, the CIA, and the Mafia, Prometheus Books, ISBN 978-1-61614-974-1
Claudio Sestieri; Giovanni Pellegrino; Giovanni Fasanella: Segreto di Stato: la verità da Gladio al caso Moro. Torino: Einaudi, 2000. ISBN 9788806156251 (see civic website of Bologna) (in Italian)
Jan Willems, Gladio, 1991, EPO-Dossier, Bruxelles (ISBN 2-87262-051-6). (in French)
Jens Mecklenburg, Gladio. Die geheime Terrororganisation der Nato, 1997, Elefanten Press Verlag GmbH, Berlin (ISBN 3-88520-612-9). (in German)
Leo A. Müller, Gladio. Das Erbe des kalten Krieges, 1991, RoRoRo-Taschenbuch Aktuell no 12993 (ISBN 3499 129930). (in German)
Jean-François Brozzu-Gentile, L’Affaire Gladio. Les réseaux secrets américains au cœur du terrorisme en Europe, 1994, Éditions Albin Michel, Paris (ISBN 2-226-06919-4). (in French)
Anna Laura Braghetti, Paola Tavella, Le Prisonnier. 55 jours avec Aldo Moro, 1999 (translated from Italian: Il Prigioniero), Éditions Denoël, Paris (ISBN 2-207-24888-7) (in Italian and French)
Regine Igel, Andreotti. Politik zwischen Geheimdienst und Mafia, 1997, Herbig Verlagsbuchhandlung GmbH, Munich (ISBN 3-7766-1951-1). (in German)
François Vitrani, “L’Italie, un Etat de ‘souveraineté limitée’ ?”, in Le Monde diplomatique, December 1990. (in French)
Patrick Boucheron, “L’affaire Sofri: un procès en sorcellerie?”, in L’Histoire magazine, n°217 (January 1998) Concerning Carlo Ginzburg’s book The judge and the historian about Adriano Sofri (in French)
“Les procès Andreotti en Italie” (“The Andreotti trials in Italy”) by Philippe Foro, published by University of Toulouse II, Groupe de recherche sur l’histoire immédiate (Study group on immediate history). (in French)
Angelo Paratico: Gli assassini del karma Roma: Robin, 2004. ISBN 978-8873710646.
European Parliament resolution on Gladio – via Wikisource.
Secret Warfare: Operation Gladio and NATO’s Stay-Behind Armies. Edited by Daniele Ganser and Christian Nuenlist, 29 Nov 2004. Parallel History Project, ETH Zürich. (Internet Archive mirror)
NATO’s Secret Armies. by Daniele Ganser, 2005. Full text.
Lectures from book launch of NATO’s Secret Armies.
Reviews of NATO’s Secret Armies.
Operation Gladio. BBC documentary, 1992. Directed by Allan Francovich.
NATO’s Secret Armies. Documentary, 2009. Directed by Andreas Pichler.
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