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The year of the Crypto Futures Trading Commission, Sept. 25–Oct. 2

The year of the Crypto Futures Trading Commission, Sept. 25–Oct. 2

Every Friday, Law Decoded delivers analysis on the week’s critical stories in the realms of policy, regulation and law.

In a tweet late last night, President Trump said that he and Melania had tested positive for COVID-19. If you weren’t already aware of that, you may want to catch up on a deluge of wishes for life and death, alongside speculation as to Trump’s announcement being a hoax, before sitting down to this week’s Law Decoded. Or possibly not.

Every week leading up to the presidential election features more amplified headlines. Law Decoded is likely not the ideal place to keep up with that news. By nature, this newsletter is not apolitical, but it is decidedly wonkish in its focus on politics, even as Brian Armstrong may have stigmatized the concept of a “mission focused” entity.*

*Although Law Decoded dogmatically opposes the crypto community’s overriding ignorance of proper hyphen usage. 

Lost in the mix of the whole election cycle is the end of the U.S. federal government’s fiscal year this week. Paying attention to fiscal years is not the most glamorous of pursuits, but the consequences have been huge. Government agencies fall under pressure to wrap up work that landed in a previous year’s budget. Crypto has seen an overload of news from U.S. agencies, but this week none upstaged the Commodity Futures Trading Commission.

The CFTC regulates derivatives markets in the U.S. Its authority derives from the Commodity Exchange Act of 1936, but the commission itself dates to 1974, making it 40 years younger than the related regulator, the Securities and Exchange Commission.

The nature of what is defined as commodities is that their value derives from a wider market. Securities depend on a third party to do their job right. Consequently, the CFTC is generally a less aggressive regulator, primarily interested in monitoring exchange markets themselves. Recent trends have put increasing authority over crypto markets in the CFTC’s hands. This week’s leading stories are chronologically reversed, backtracking the commission’s recent moves to bring crypto markets to heel, beginning with the driving story of yesterday.

Kollen Post, Policy Editor, @the_postman_


Pontic Greeks - Wikipedia

Pontic Greeks – Wikipedia

Έλληνες του Πόντου (Ρωμιοί)

One of the Pontic flags

Stone slab with two men carved on it. They stand, wearing chitons.

Greek colonies of the Euxine Sea, 8th to 3rd century BC

refer to caption

Ancient Greek coin from Sinope, coast depicting the head of a nymph and an eagle with raised wings, 4th Century BC

Stone statue of a bearded man in ancient Greek dress holding a lantern. A sculpted dog sits at his side.

Slightly damaged stone sculpture of a man's head. He wears an animal pelt over his hair.

Map of northern Turkey showing Roman provinces.

Medieval drawing of a bearded Pontic Greek man in jeweled royal regalia.

Depiction of an elderly Pontic Greek man in a Catholic cardinal's clothes.

Drawn map of Pontus region

Photograph of Pontic Greek men, women, and children in Western clothes.

Photograph of Pontic Greek man, woman, and their children. The man is dressed in Western clothes, the woman in traditional costume.

Pontic Greek families of the early 20th century

Three rows of Pontic Greek men in western suits, standing or seated close together.

Photograph of seven young Pontic Greek women in western dresses, standing or seated.

Pontic Greek professionals and businesspeople of the early 20th century

Map of ethnic groups in Anatolia and Greece.

Photograph of corpses lined up on the street. Orthodox clergy stand by.

Dead bodies of Pontic Greeks, 1916

Photograph of corpses lined up on the street. Some are visibly burned.

The Turkish guide-books on sale in the Taksim Meydane offer this account of the 1923 Katastrofĕ: ‘After the proclamation of the Republic, the Greeks who lived in the region returned to their own country […].’ Their own country? Returned? They had lived in the Pontos for nearly three thousand years. Their Pontian dialect was not understandable to twentieth-century Athenians.[21]

Many children and elderly died during the voyage to Greece. When the crew realized they were dead, they were thrown overboard. Soon the mothers of dead children started pretending that they were still alive. After witnessing what was done to the deceased, they would hold on to them and comfort them as if they were still alive. They did this to give them a proper burial in Greece.[citation needed]

Photograph of a tall, roughly square stone fortress in a modern coastal city.

Photograph of the sea from a mountainous coastal city. The camera focuses on a wooded island.

Giresun Island, used by Ancient Greek colonists as early as the 5th century BCE

Fresco depicting Mary and Jesus in Sumela Monastery

Photograph of a brick building on a city street.

Saint Anne Church, one of the oldest churches in Trabzon

Photograph of a church dome covered with frescoes. From inside the building.

Dome of Trabzon’s Hagia Sophia

Photograph of stone fortress in wooded mountains.

Zilkale in the Pontic Alps in Çamlıhemşin, Rize Province

Sepia photograph of a mansion among smaller houses in a city.

Konstantinos Theofylaktos’ mansion in Trabzon before it was converted to a museum

Houses in foggy, tree-covered mountains

Traditional rural Pontian houses

Photograph of a multi-story limestone structure built into a cliff.

Multi-story building in a coastal city.

Three rows of Pontic Greek men and boys in front of a school. They wear western suits.

Pontian Greek students and teachers of the Alumni Tuition 1902–1903 in Trebizond

Rows of men in the woods holding musical instruments. They dress in Western or traditional styles.

Map of common folk dances by province in Turkey.

Folk dances in Turkey. Horon in blue.

  • Felia (φελία), dessert
  • Kinteata (κιντέατα), nettle soup
  • Otía (ωτία), dessert
  • Pirozhki (πιροσκί)
  • Pishía (πισία), Pontian pita
  • Sousamópita (σουσαμόπιτα)
  • Tanoménon sorvá or Tanofái (τανωμένον σορβά, τανοφάι), soup
  • Tsirichtá (τσιριχτά), type of loukoumades
  • Varenika (βαρένικα), type of ravioli
  • In the 1984 movie Voyage to Cythera (Ταξίδι στα Κύθηρα),[104] directed by Theodoros Angelopoulos, the protagonist is a Pontian Greek who was deported to the Soviet Union after the Greek civil war. He returns to Greece after 32 years.
  • In his 1998 movie From the Edge of the City (Από την άκρη της πόλης),[105] the film director Constantinos Giannaris describes the life of a young “Russian Pontian” from Kazakhstan in the prostitution underworld of Athens.
  • In the 1999 movie Soil and Water (Χώμα και νερό),[106] one of the characters is a Pontian Greek from Georgia who works as a woman’s trafficker for a strip club.
  • In the 2000 memoir “Not Even My Name: From a Death March in Turkey to a New Home in America, A Young Girl’s True Story of Genocide and Survival” by Thea Halo, life in the Pontus region is described by her mother Sano Halo before and after the Greek Genocide.
  • In the 2000 movie The Very Poor, Inc. (Πάμπτωχοι Α.Ε.),[107] one of the characters is a Pontian Greek from the Soviet Union named Thymios Hloridis. A mathematician with a specialty in chaos theory, Hloridis is forced to make a living selling illegal cigars in front of the stock-market.
  • In the 2003 Turkish movie Waiting for the Clouds (Bulutlari Beklerken, Περιμένοντας τα σύννεφα),[108] one Pontian Greek woman, who didn’t leave as a child with her brother during the general expulsion of Pontian Greeks to the Greek Peloponnese after the first world war and the Treaty of Lausanne’s mandated Population transfer, meets Thanasis, a Pontian Greek man from the Soviet Union, who helps her to find her brother in Greece. The movie makes some references to the pontian genocide.
  • In the 2008 short movie Pontos,[109] written, produced, and directed by Peter Stefanidis, he aims to capture a small part of the genocide from the perspective of its two central characters, played by Lee Mason (Kemal) and Ross Black (Pantzo).
  • In 2012 The Black Sea by Stephanos Papadopoulos a collection of poems depicting the imagined trials and voyages of the Pontic Greek exodus from the region was published by Sheep Meadow Press.
  • Drawing of a mustachioed, balding Pontic Greek man from the chest up.

    Photograph of a Pontic Greek man in military clothes.

    Photograph of a seated Pontic Greek man in a suit.

    Photograph of a modern Pontic Greek woman at a podium.

  • Diogenes of Sinope
  • Bion of Borysthenes
  • Heraclides Ponticus
  • Strabo
  • Philetaerus (ca. 343 BC–263 BC)[14]
  • Mithridates the VI of Pontus
  • Memnon of Heraclea
  • Marcion of Sinope
  • Aquila of Sinope
  • Evagrius Ponticus
  • Alexios II of Trebizond
  • Athanasius the Athonite
  • Ecumenical Patriarch John VIII
  • Ecumenical Patriarch Maximus V
  • Michael Panaretos
  • George Amiroutzes
  • Gregory Choniades
  • George of Trebizond
  • Basilios Bessarion
  • Documentary on the Pontic Greeks culture, dances and songs: ΤΟ ΑΛΑΤΙ ΤΗΣ ΓΗΣ – Ποντος HD on YouTube
  • Documentary showcasing Pontic Greek music and dance tradition: ΤΟ ΑΛΑΤΙ ΤΗΣ ΓΗΣ – Ποντιακό γλέντι HD on YouTube
  • Old photo of five Pontic Greeks in western dress, seated or standing inside.

    Photograph of Pontian woman, man, and children seated inside.

    Family photograph of Pontians at a house. Some old women wear traditional clothes. A young boy holds a rifle.

    Photograph of Pontian women and girls in western dress.

    Photograph of elaborately dressed Pontian man and woman inside.

    Photograph of Pontian boys in sports uniforms.

    Rows of Pontian girls in school uniforms with their teacher.

  • Two rows of young Pontian men in sports clothes with their soccer ball.

    Pontian men wearing western suits in a canoe, Black Sea. Some wear fezes or carry instruments.

    Pontian man in old military uniform posing with a gun.

    Photograph of Pontic Greek family.

  • Amaseia, a city with Pontic Greeks
  • Cappadocian Greeks
  • Caucasian Greeks
  • Urums
  • Laz people
  • Hellenization of Laz people
  • Greek genocide
  • Greek Muslims
  • Yannis Vasilis, a former ultra-nationalist Turk turned pacifist and promoter of Greek heritage after finding out his Pontic Greek heritage.
  • Halo, Thea. Not Even My Name. Picador. 2000. ISBN 978-0-312-26211-2.
  • Hofmann, Tessa, ed. Verfolgung, Vertreibung und Vernichtung der Christen im Osmanischen Reich 1912–1922. Münster: LIT, 2004. ISBN 978-3-8258-7823-8
  • Berikashvili, Svetlana. Morphological aspects of Pontic Greek spoken in Georgia. LINCOM GmbH, 2017. ISBN 978-3-8628-8852-8
  • Bruneau, Michel (2015). “Le patrimoine menacé des Grecs pontiques, entre Turquie et Grèce”. Anatoli (in French) (6). doi:10.4000/anatoli.315.
  • Pontian Federation of Greece
  • Website with map showing colonization of the Black Sea by Greeks
  • An interactive map featuring historic sites in Turkey, which can be filtered to show only Greek sites
  • Source:

    Author: Authority control
    GND: 1049810279

    An Inside Look At Wyoming State Regulators Prepping For First Crypto Bank Examinations

    An Inside Look At Wyoming State Regulators Prepping For First Crypto Bank Examinations

    Two weeks ago, Kraken Financial received the first Special Purpose Depository Institution (SPDI) charter from the Wyoming Banking Division to much fanfare. With the hard work of well-known players such as Tyler Lindholm (R-Sundance) and Caitlin Long, CEO of Avanti Bank, the foundation has been established for Wyoming to be the most crypto-friendly jurisdiction in the U.S. Now that the laws are passed and the charter is issued, it is up to the Wyoming Banking Division regulators to begin the first-ever crypto bank examinations.

    By way of background, I have prior experience at the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) where I have examined banks in Texas, Louisiana, and Arkansas. Almost always, banks have a combination of federal and state examiners if the charter is issued by the state, with either the FDIC or the Federal Reserve as the federal regulator. If the charter is national, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) will examine the bank, meaning only federal regulators go on bank examinations.

    However, Wyoming’s new SPDI charter for Kraken Financial creates a very unique circumstance that I believe has created ‘Unicorn Regulators’ for Fintech, who are at a historic moment in preparing for digital asset bank examinations, similarly to when the FDIC began its first exams in 1933 and the OCC started exams in 1863. I had a unique opportunity to spend some time speaking to both Commissioner Albert L. Forkner of the Wyoming Banking Division and Chris Land, General Counsel, to get an inside view of this historic moment in bank examinations. Below is my Q&A with them.

    Al Forkner, Commissioner of the Wyoming Banking Division

    Jason Brett: All regulators started somewhere from scratch. Whether it was the FDIC in 1933 about to conduct its first examination, there is likely a sense of history that you have in what you are undertaking. What is that like Mr. Forkner?

    Al Forkner: While Wyoming has been fairly pioneering in this space, fortunately we have a good foundation to build upon. Regulators have been supervising banks since the 1800s. In Wyoming, the first State Bank Examiner took office in 1892. Think about the evolution of banking and financial services since then. Today is really no different, other than the rate of change is much faster. So, I am working to make sure my staff—which is extremely capable—has all of the tools necessary to properly supervise and examine this new bank charter. If we happen to make a little history along the way, then that might be something exciting to be a part of.

    Brett: Who will conduct the bank examinations of Kraken? Most are familiar with either the FDIC or the Federal Reserve alongside the state regulators, or the OCC if you are a national bank. Who is in charge of issuing an Examination Report in this case?

    Forkner: The Wyoming Division of Banking is Kraken’s chartering authority and primary prudential supervisor. The Division is responsible for conducting off-site monitoring of Kraken on a regular basis, conducting regular full-scope examinations and working with management to ensure a safe and sound institution. The Division will be responsible for issuing Reports of Examination.

    Brett: Can you tell us a little bit about how you are figuring out what the examination policies and procedures will look like?

    Forkner: Great question. No policy manuals and examination procedures for bank digital asset activities exists today. The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) has recently issued two guidance documents affirming that national banks may provide certain digital asset services. However, legal authority is not enough—there must be supervisory policies. Banks need to know how their regulators view the details of these activities, what their expectations are, and best practices.

    Wyoming is currently nearing completion of the first comprehensive set of policy manuals and examination procedures for bank digital asset activities. This is the first of its kind in the United States and among the first in the world.

    These documents will cover areas like BSA/AML/KYC/sanctions, custody and fiduciary activities, information technology, payment system risk and bank operations. These documents will give banks the detail they need, balancing both the innovative nature of digital assets and the need for safety and soundness in the U.S. banking system. These manuals and procedures are built directly upon existing bank manuals and guidance, with additional flavor and risk-management considerations for digital assets.

    Brett: Commissioner, from the perspective of thinking of you as a ‘unicorn regulator’, should the people of Wyoming be fearful that there is now a bank without FDIC insurance?

    Forkner: No, for several reasons: First, each SPDI will be regulated by the Division in much the same way as a traditional bank. The Division is one of the few banking regulators in the world that has developed knowledge relating to digital assets. Second, the FDIC insurance limit only applies up to $250,000 and wouldn’t apply to digital assets, like bitcoin, even if the bank was FDIC-insured. Under Wyoming law, 100% of each customer’s deposit is required to be protected (which will be regularly verified by the Division), so there is no $250,000 limit. Third, each SPDI is required to pledge $15,000,000+ to the State of Wyoming to cover receivership costs. This money is held in a separate account, at another bank, under the Division’s control. This money would be available for receivership costs, so the State of Wyoming isn’t left on the hook. Finally, in the very unlikely event that the Division was required to close an SPDI, the Division has procedures already in place to manage a receivership. They are similar to the FDIC’s procedures for closing a bank.

    Chris Land, General Counsel, Wyoming Division of Banking

    Brett: Chris, recently there were reports of bringing in vendors such as Chainalysis and Promontory Financial, how are they assisting you with your exam preparation?

    Land: Chainalysis, and potentially other vendors, will assist the Division will BSA/AML/KYC/sanctions compliance, both on an ongoing off-site basis and during regular examinations. They will also be available to conduct more focused investigations, if necessary.

    Promontory Financial Group, a well-respected firm of market professionals and former regulators, has been collaborating with the Division to develop our policy manuals and examination procedures. They are quite insightful and have helped us take a wide-lens view of how international regulators are viewing digital asset activities, as well as honing in on a fine level of detail to guide our bank examination staff and each SPDI.

    Brett: Are there any key tenets or principles for ‘Digital Asset Supervisory Guidance’ you have already gleaned from your preparation?

    Land: One, We’re taking a principles-based approach where we can. Digital assets are an evolving space and we’re trying to facilitate responsible innovation. Two, existing principles relating to bank operations (BSA/AML, custody, etc.) should apply whenever possible. Third, we’re taking a collaborative approach, developing these materials with feedback from our federal and state regulatory colleagues. Fourth, we’re committed to creating a product that is comprehensive and, for the first time, completely addresses all aspects of bank digital asset activities. We hope the product will stand the test of time and start a national conversation on these issues.

    Brett: What would you say to people in Wyoming or elsewhere that do not understand crypto or ‘digital banking’, that would convince them this is a safe and sound institution based on your examinations?

    Land: We will be applying nearly the same standards to each SPDI that are applicable to existing banks. Each bank will be examined on a regular basis and has capital requirements similar to a traditional bank. Additionally, we have detailed policies and procedures for how these banks should operate. In many ways, digital assets are just a new asset class for banks.

    Brett: What does it mean that, in the instance of Kraken, they will ‘apply for a Master Account at the Fed’? How will this help the bank work outside of the state of Wyoming and in other states?

    Land: Kraken is eligible to apply for an account relationship with the Federal Reserve System. This will potentially allow them to clear payments with the Federal Reserve and to conduct other related activities. Access to the payment system is one of the hallmark features of a ‘bank.’

    Brett: What happens if a bank becomes a Member of the Fed or gets FDIC Insurance? Would that mean that Federal regulators would then start playing a role in the examinations?

    Land: Kraken is eligible to apply for membership in the Federal Reserve System and to obtain FDIC insurance, though they are not required to do so. If Kraken were to pursue either option, the Federal Reserve or the FDIC would conduct joint examinations of Kraken alongside the Division, and would assist us in ensuring their safe and sound operation on an ongoing basis.

    Brett: Do you consider what the OCC is doing as catch-up with their interpretive letters? What advice would you give them?

    Land: Wyoming has been working on these issues in detail since 2018, and it’s great that the OCC similarly recognizes the importance of responsible innovation in the U.S. banking system.

    Brett: Will you be doing a Safety and Soundness and a BSA exam?

    Land: Yes, each SPDI will receive nearly the same examination that any U.S. bank would, with enhanced focus on BSA/AML/KYC/sanctions, custody and fiduciary activities, and information technology.

    Brett: Will you make the examination booklet public like other regulators sometimes do once it is refined?

    Land: These materials will be publicly available. The Division will determine the best way to do this in the near future.

    Brett: Thank you both.


    Author: Jason Brett


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