Hardware random number generator – Wikipedia

Hardware random number generator - Wikipedia

  • Shot noise, a quantum mechanical noise source in electronic circuits. A simple example is a lamp shining on a photodiode. Due to the uncertainty principle, arriving photons create noise in the circuit. Collecting the noise for use poses some problems, but this is an especially simple random noise source. However, shot noise energy is not always well distributed throughout the bandwidth of interest. Gas diode and thyratron electron tubes in a crosswise magnetic field can generate substantial noise energy (10 volts or more into high impedance loads) but have a very peaked energy distribution and require careful filtering to achieve flatness across a broad spectrum.[8]
  • A nuclear decay radiation source, detected by a Geiger counter attached to a PC.
  • Photons travelling through a semi-transparent mirror. The mutually exclusive events (reflection/transmission) are detected and associated to ‘0’ or ‘1’ bit values respectively.
  • Amplification of the signal produced on the base of a reverse-biased transistor. The emitter is saturated with electrons and occasionally they will tunnel through the band gap and exit via the base. This signal is then amplified through a few more transistors and the result fed into a Schmitt trigger.
  • Spontaneous parametric down-conversion leading to binary phase state selection in a degenerate optical parametric oscillator.[9]
  • Fluctuations in vacuum energy measured through homodyne detection.[10][11][third-party source needed]
  • Thermal noise from a resistor, amplified to provide a random voltage source.[12]
  • Avalanche noise generated from an avalanche diode, or Zener breakdown noise from a reverse-biased Zener diode.
  • Atmospheric noise, detected by a radio receiver attached to a PC (though much of it, such as lightning noise, is not properly thermal noise, but most likely a chaotic phenomenon).
  • When random bits are requested, return that many bits derived from the entropy pool (by a cryptographic hash function, say) and decrement the estimate of the number of random bits remaining in the pool. If not enough unknown bits are available, wait until enough are available. This is the top-level design of the “/dev/random” device in Linux, written by Theodore Ts’o and used in many other Unix-like operating systems. It provides high-quality random numbers so long as the estimates of the input randomness are sufficiently cautious. The Linux “/dev/urandom” device is a simple modification which disregards estimates of input randomness, and is therefore rather less likely to have high entropy as a result.
  • Maintain a stream cipher with a key and initialization vector (IV) obtained from an entropy pool. When enough bits of entropy have been collected, replace both key and IV with new random values and decrease the estimated entropy remaining in the pool. This is the approach taken by the yarrow library. It provides resistance against some attacks and conserves hard-to-obtain entropy.
  • AN/CYZ-9
  • Bell test experiments
  • /dev/random
  • List of random number generators
  • Lottery machine
  • Randomness extractor
  • Trusted Platform Module
  • Brown, George W (June 1949), History of Rand’s Million Digits, papers, RAND Corporation.
  • Brown, Bernice (October 1948), Some Tests of the Randomness of a Million Digits, Papers, RAND Corporation.
  • “Tube type 6D4”, Electron Tube Data handbook, Sylvania, 1957.
  • A Million Random Digits with 100,000 Normal Deviates, RAND Corporation.
  • Galton, Francis (1890), “Dice for statistical experiments”, Nature, 42 (1070): 13–4, Bibcode:1890Natur..42…13G, doi:10.1038/042013a0.
  • Randomness and Genuine Random Number Generator With Self-testing Functions (PDF), Japan: LE Tech RNG.
  • RFC 4086 on Randomness Recommendations for Security (replaces earlier RFC 1750), IETF.
  • The Intel Random Number Generator (PDF), Intel.
  • Entropy Key, Simtec, uses P-N semiconductor junctions reverse biassed with a high enough voltage to bring them near to, but not beyond, breakdown in order to generate noise.
  • Download Random Numbers, randomserver, uses a TRNG9803 hardware random number generator.
  • ProtegoST SG100, ProtegoST, “Hardware Random Number Generator “Based on quantum physics random number source from a zener diode”.
  • Source: en.wikipedia.org

    Crypto Adoption Advocate 1xBit Adds EOS to Its Sportsbook and Casino

    Crypto Adoption Advocate 1xBit Adds EOS to Its Sportsbook and Casino


    October 8th 2020, Limassol, Cyprus – 1xBit Casino Sportsbook has announced its support for one of the markets hottest cryptocurrencies, EOS. The PoS (delegated-proof-of-stake) token is used on the EOS platform for developers to build Dapps, but also offers the everyday user a rapid, free transfer of value. With these efficient attributes at the core of the EOS token, 1xBit instantly saw a great use-case for its service, and great benefits for its loyal community of players.

    Unlike other popular cryptocurrencies like BTC and ETH that come with costly transaction fees, EOS transactions do not require the sender to spend any gas. Instead, EOS users all share a communal network bandwidth connection, and use a small amount of RAM via their computers to run the network.

    In addition to transaction savings, EOS users will not have to wait very long for their deposits or withdrawals to process, as the EOS blockchain is capable of processing up to 4000 transactions per second. For some context, EOS competitor and second biggest cryptocurrency (by total market capitalization) ETH currently averages just 15 transactions per second.

    Players previously hamstrung by costly BTC and ETH transaction fees can not deposit and withdraw large sums without the worry of losing a chunk of their hard-earned winnings. By listing EOS on its Sportsbook and Casino platform, 1xBit not only benefits its player specifically, but also continues its reputation as a pioneer for the mainstream adoption of cryptocurrency, and blockchain.

    Founded by professional sports and casino gamblers 1xBit is a next generation cryptocurrency betting platform that combines sports betting with an online casino, creating a one-stop-shop gambling destination. The website caters for a broad community of different players, from recreational casino gamblers to professional sports gamblers.

    1xBit has a huge range of great features that have helped the site continue to grow in size and popularity over the last 5 years. Most recently 1xBit added a feature called ‘Live Betting’ that allows players to watch a sports game or play with a real human casino dealer in live, whilst placing bets in real time.

    1xBit has a constantly-running 100% sign-up bonus with a massive 7BTC limit running now.

    In addition, the site has weekly prizes, no ID sign-up, provably fair games, free and instant deposits and withdrawals, bet insurance,, a bonus points system for placed bets, rapid withdrawals, Android & iOS designed games, and no less than 25 supported currencies.

    1xBit has a broad range of games that cover everything from classic casino titles, sports betting, national sports, slots, e-sports, Live-betting and lotteries.

    Best known for its huge range of slots games, 1xBit boasts classics like Great Panda and Rise of Egypt backed, which are backed up by new sensations like Battle Maidens, Knights of Magic and Dragon Tiger. 1xBit also offers both classic and modern variations of traditional casino games such as Roulette, Poker, Baccarat and Blackjack.

    1xBit has developed an extensive list of sports betting options to keep up with a recent increase in demand. Sports titles include Football, Australian Rules, American Football, Greyhound Racing, Chess, Basketball, Golf, Baseball,, Snooker, Horse Racing, Special Bets,Greyhounds, and much more.

    1xBit also features popular video games including League of Legends, Fortnite, FIFA, StarCraft II, Warcraft, Valorant, CS: GO and Dota2.

    1xBit is known as an advocate of crypto adoption, and supports an impressive 25 different cryptocurrencies including EOS, BTC, ETH, LTC, DASH, SIA, ZCASH, TRON, USDT, XRP, and many more.

    For more information about 1xBit, please visit – https://1xbit.com/

    Check out the official 1xBit blog for the latest articles – https://1xbit.com/blog/

    Media Contact Details

    Contact name: Anastasia Semenova

    Email: [email protected]

    1xBit is the source of this content. This Press Release is for informational purposes only. Virtual currency is not legal tender, is not backed by the government, and accounts and value balances are not subject to consumer protections. Cryptocurrencies and tokens are extremely volatile. There is no guarantee of a stable value, or of any value at all.

    About Bitcoin PR Buzz: Bitcoin PR Buzz has been proudly serving the crypto press release distribution needs of blockchain start-ups for over 8 years. Get your Bitcoin Press Release Distribution today.

    The post Crypto Adoption Advocate 1xBit Adds EOS to Its Sportsbook and Casino appeared first on Bitcoin News.


    The post Crypto Adoption Advocate 1xBit Adds EOS to Its Sportsbook and Casino appeared first on BTC Ethereum Crypto Currency Blog.

    Source: cryptomoneyteam.co

    Author: By TeamMMG

    MTT assay - Wikipedia

    MTT assay – Wikipedia

    A microtiter plate after an MTT assay. Increasing amounts of cells resulted in increased purple colouring.

    MTT reduction

  • Tetrazolium chloride
  • Formazan
    • MTT assay Protocol

    Source: en.wikipedia.org

    Major XRP Price Rebound Could Happen As Ripple Plans To Relocate

    Major XRP Price Rebound Could Happen As Ripple Plans To Relocate

    A major XRP price rebound could happen as Ripple announced to relocate its headquarters out of the United States as we reported in the Ripple news.

    XRP is giving signs of a significant price rebound as Ripple Labs said that there are plans to move out of the United States. The San Francisco-based blockchain company iterated via Chris Larsen that it may shift to a more friendly country like the Switzerland, Japan, Singapore, or the UK because of America’s lack of regulatory clarity for crypto businesses and blockchain companies:

     “The message is blockchain and digital currencies are not welcome in the US. You want to be in this business, you probably should be going somewhere else. To be honest with you, we’re even looking at relocating our headquarters to a much more friendly jurisdiction.”

    The statement came after the US court dismissed two of three allegations against Ripple the previous week as the charges were a part of a class-action lawsuit which was filed by investor Vladi Zakinov in November 2018 alleging that the company and its CEO Brad Garlinghouse sold them as illegal securities in the form of an XRP token. Mr. Garlinghouse blamed the US SEC for its inability to clarify better laws for blockchain firms adding that Ripple is not trying to avoid the rules by deciding to move away from the country but it wants to operate in an environment where the regulations are clear.

    Strongest internet companies built in the US, in part b/c of regulatory clarity. We have that opp with blockchain + digital assets. Responsible players like Ripple aren’t looking to avoid rules, we just want to operate in a jurisdiction where the rules are clear. #DCEA of 2020 https://t.co/LqbEDuMXvx

    — Brad Garlinghouse (@bgarlinghouse) October 6, 2020

    XRP’s first reaction to the news was positive as the cryptocurrency by market cap increased to $0.0032 or 1.35% but it failed to turn the upside into a full-fledged bullish movement correcting lower to $0.246 as of the time of writing. Vince Prince, a market analyst stated in a note that he believes that a major XRP price rebound could happen soon which could settle around $0.233 and $0.235.

     “[XRP] has the preliminary support within the blue level marked in my chart [as shown below] between 0.2335-0.235 which is an important support to hold for XRPUSD before moving upward.”

    The analysis came as the inverse Head and Shoulder pattern formed and if sustained it prompted the XRP price to rebound to the neckline while sitting near the $0.2604 as he added:

     “It will be interesting to see XRPUSD further development in the structure. And, in comparison to the rest market, this is a structure [that] has good potential.”

    Source: cryptomoneyteam.co

    Author: By TeamMMG

    Hardware random number generator - Wikipedia

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